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Pictured above is Barbra, rescued PMU Mare. PMU factory farmers freeze-brand the stall numbers on the mares. They have no names, just numbers.
Pregnant Mares' Urine Industry (PMU)
PMU is used to produce estrogen and hormone-replacement drugs such as Premarin, PremPro and PremPhase - and now DUAVEE, a "Premarin-Lite" drug. PMU drugs are made by keeping mares constantly pregnant and collecting their estrogen-rich urine.
The 2002 Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) – a major landmark study – concluded that the use of PMU drugs increases the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, blood clots and dementia. Many doctors in the United States and Canada stopped prescribing PMU drugs once the dangers were fully known. However, Pfizer (and Wyeth before it) already knew of these dangers and began moving production abroad where local regulations are more lax and there are significantly less FDA inspectors available to monitor production. Reportedly, this not only results in significantly more horrific conditions for the mares but also less oversight in the manufacturing of an already dangerous drug. There are approximately 90,000 mares currently on PMU lines in China.
DUAVEE, a new "Premarin-Lite" Drug
With all the bad publicity and increasing awareness of the dangers of PMU drugs, we thought this awful practice would surely come to an end, but then the FDA approved Pfizer’s DUAVEE (formerly known as Aprela) in October 2013. Although heavily disguised in both name and labeling, DUAVEE is nothing more than “Premarin Lite” that carries the same dangerous side effects and is made in the same inhumane way.
This well-known quotation was aptly used to condemn the pharmaceutical giant, Wyeth, in a riveting article published in 2002 by the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), widely regarded as the most highly respected medical publication in Canada. It added "...the message for healthy women without severe symptoms of menopause is now clear: To avoid as far as possible HRT, which on balance does more harm than good..."
Cycle of cruelty
Life for PMU mares is brutal. An estimated one-fourth are replaced each year, although the typical lifespan of the draft breeds used on most of the PMU factory farms in Canada is twenty years or more. The mares are repeatedly impregnated, and for six months of each 11-month pregnancy most are confined in stalls that prohibit turning around, grooming themselves and comfortably lying down. Their water intake is often regulated to produce maximum estrogen-rich urine. The mares are continually attached to plumbing which is designed to fit over their urethras. It is held in place with movement-restricting body straps. When mares can no longer adequately "produce," most are sold for slaughter. Most of their surviving foals are either pulled and raised as "Pee Line" replacements or sold at auction for slaughter.
A former PMU mare, Ella was part of a major rescue operation of 46 Canadian PMU mares that Equine Advocates saved in Manitoba between October, 2003 and March, 2004. Ella's brand, the number 57, corresponds to the number on her stall where she had to stand for more than six months of every year while pregnant.
Will we live to see the end of PMU lines?
The Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
PMU drugs were first approved by the FDA in 1942 and again in 2013 with the new drug, DUAVEE. PMU drugs contain impurites and unknown properties that cannot be identified. It is outrageous that the FDA made it so difficult for many years for the manufacturers of bio-identical hormones to get approval so that women had alternative choices other than drugs made from horse urine. Bio-Identical hormones are produced in compounding pharmacies and regarded by many medical professionals to be much safer while not involving the use and abuse of horses to produce them. There are numerous other doctor-recommended medications on the market that women can use to effectively treat the symptoms of menopause that are safely produced in laboratories... And whose ingredients can be completely identified. Note: Equine Advocates is not endorsing or recommending any particular medication. All questions of a medical nature should be taken up with your doctor.
There goes Ella as she kicks up her heels in the middle of the herd. All the mares in this photo came from PMU factory farm operations in Canada; the fillies are foals born to several of the rescued mares.
Below, Maxine, a Cleveland Bay and former PMU Mare, takes a few minutes to cool off with some of her friends during a turn-out of 40+ horses at Equine Advocates Rescue & Sanctuary. Equine Advocates rescued Maxine at a Winnipeg, Canada, slaughter auction where she was being brutalized and beaten in the sales ring. It took a long time for her to get over her past abuses and she is enjoying her life at the sanctuary.