The Issues

 Equine Rescue

 Horse Slaughter

 Equine Abuse & Neglect

 Wild Mustangs & Burros

 PMU Industry

 Carriage Horses

 Resources & Links




Support Equine Advocates

Join Equine Advocates Mailing List















Equine IssueCat Pictured above is Barbra, rescued PMU Mare. PMU factory farmers freeze-brand the stall numbers on the mares. They have no names, just numbers.

PMU Industry

Pregnant Mares' Urine Industry (PMU)

PMU is used to produce estrogen and hormone-replacement drugs such as Premarin, PremPro and PremPhase - and now DUAVEE, a "PremPro-Lite" which contains Premarin.   PMU drugs are made by keeping mares constantly pregnant and collecting their estrogen-rich urine. 

The 2002 Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) – a major landmark study – concluded that the use of PMU drugs increases the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, blood clots and dementia. Many doctors in the United States and Canada stopped prescribing PMU drugs once the dangers were fully known. However, Pfizer (and Wyeth before it) saw what was coming down the pike and began moving production abroad where local regulations are more lax and there are significantly less FDA inspectors available to monitor production. Reportedly, this not only results in significantly more horrific conditions for the mares but also less oversight in the manufacturing of an already dangerous drug.  There are reportedly 90,000 mares currently on PMU lines in China.


Retired Canadian Physician Dr. Ray Kellosalmi was among the first to come out publicly against the use of Premarin and stop prescribing it to his patients. Here is a eye-opening presentation on PMU that Dr. Kellosalmi gave at our 2014 American Equine Summit:

 DUAVEE, a new "PremPro-Lite" Drug

With all the bad publicity and increasing awareness of the dangers of PMU drugs, we thought this awful practice would surely come to an end, but it didn't, and then the FDA approved Pfizer’s DUAVEE (formerly known as Aprela) in October 2013. Although heavily disguised in both name and labeling, DUAVEE is nothing more than “PremPro Lite” that carries the same dangerous side effects, contains Premarin and is not only made in the same inhumane way but also contains bazedoxifene, which is not even approved as a stand-alone drug by the FDA in the U.S.

Oh what a tangled web we weave,
When first we practice to deceive!

This well-known quotation was aptly used to condemn the pharmaceutical giant, Wyeth, in a riveting article published in 2002 by the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), widely regarded as the most highly respected medical publication in Canada. It added "...the message for healthy women without severe symptoms of menopause is now clear: To avoid as far as possible HRT, which on balance does more harm than good..."

Cycle of cruelty

Life for PMU mares in Canada was brutal and we can only imagine that it is even worse in China where there is little to no oversight.  The mares are repeatedly impregnated, and for six months of each 11-month pregnancy most are confined in stalls that prohibit turning around, grooming themselves and comfortably lying down. Their water intake is often regulated to produce maximum estrogen-rich urine. The mares are continually attached to plumbing which is designed to fit over their urethras. It is held in place with movement-restricting body straps. When mares can no longer adequately "produce," most are sold for slaughter. Most of their surviving foals are either pulled and raised as "Pee Line" replacements or slaughtered for food in China.

A former PMU mare, Ella was part of a major rescue operation of 46 Canadian PMU mares that Equine Advocates saved in Manitoba between October, 2003 and March, 2004. Ella's brand, the number 57, corresponds to the number on her stall where she had to stand for more than six months of every year while pregnant.

Will we live to see the end of PMU lines?


The Food & Drug Administration (FDA)

PMU drugs were first approved by the FDA in 1942 followed by PremPro, PremPhase, PMU creams, patches and the latest PMU drug, DUAVEE which hit the market in 2014.  PMU drugs contain impurites and unknown properties that cannot be identified.   Bio-Identical hormones are regarded by many medical professionals to be much safer while not involving the use and abuse of horses to produce them.  There are numerous other doctor-recommended medications on the market that women can use to effectively treat the symptoms of menopause that are safely produced in laboratories... And whose ingredients can be completely identified. Note:  Equine Advocates is not endorsing or recommending any particular medication.  All questions of a medical nature should be taken up with your doctor.



There goes Ella as she kicks up her heels in the middle of the herd. All the mares in this photo either came from PMU factory farm operations in Canada or are the offspring of those mares and born in the U.S.

Below, Maxine, a Cleveland Bay and former PMU Mare, takes a few minutes to cool off with some of her friends during a turn-out of 40+ horses at Equine Advocates Rescue & Sanctuary. Equine Advocates rescued Maxine at a Winnipeg, Canada, slaughter auction where she was being brutalized and beaten in the sales ring. It took a long time for her to get over her past abuses and she is enjoying her life at the sanctuary.

Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player.

Get Adobe Flash player


Please Take Action